高中虚拟语气之简单句中的虚拟语气

文学网时间:2018-08-21 14:13:10

  一、情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌、或委婉的语气,常用于日常会话中(即两个人面对面讲话,用的不是现在时态而是过去式)。如:

  ⑴.Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office?请你告诉我去邮局的好吗?

  ⑵.It would be better for you not to stay up too late.你最好别熬夜到很晚。

  二、表祝愿。

  1、常用“may+动词原形”表示祝愿、但愿,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。

  ⑴、May good luck be yours!祝你好运!

  ⑵、May you be happy!祝你快乐!

  ⑶、May you do even better!祝你取得更大成就!

  ⑷、May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。

  ⑸、May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

  ⑹、May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。

  2、用动词原形。例如:

  (1).Long live the people! 人民!

  (2).“God bless you,”said the priest.说:“愿你!”

  (3).Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!

  三、表示强烈愿望。(该类型虚拟语气谓语仅用动词原形,第三人称单数也不加“s”)

  (1).God save me.

  (2).Heaven help us.

  四、表命令

  1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。

  2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!

  3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be , go

  4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词do,加上not。

  (1). Work !

  (2). Work harder !

  (3). Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)

  (4). You go out !

  (5). Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)

  (6). Dont be afraid. (口语中常用dont 代替do not)

  五、在一些习惯表达中。如:

  (1).You’d better set off now.你最好现在就出发。

  (2).I’d rather not tell you the secret.我情愿不告诉你这个秘密。

  名词性从句中的虚拟语气

  第一部分:宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的虚拟语气

  一、在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

  在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,常省去宾语从句的引导词that。

  一)、对现在情况的虚拟(与现在的事实相反):

  从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的)。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例:

  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.

  (wish, 动词过去式knew)我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)

  2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.

  (wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)

  3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能)

  4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.

  (wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)

  5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)

  现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)

  6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

  二)、对过去情况的虚拟(和过去的事实相反):

  用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时,或would, could, might+现在完成时。注意:wish这个单词的时态是很灵活的。例:

  1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadnt wasted so much time.

  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)

  2. He wishes he hadnt lost the chance. 他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去)

  3. We wished he had spoken to us. (wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)

  4. I wish you had called earlier. (wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)

  5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.

  (will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)

  例题分析:I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

  A. could have slept B. sleptC. might have slept D. have slept

  解析:动词wish后面接从句,表达不可能实现或与事实相反的情况时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用过去式(表示现在发生的动作)或过去完成式(表示过去发生的动作)。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项A)could have slept是答案。

  三)、对将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望):

  从句动词would/should/could/might + 动词原形(时间上较后)

  (请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同)。用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。例:

  1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)

  我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)

  2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)

  我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)

  3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)

  你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到)

  4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)

  我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意)

  5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)

  (只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起)

  四)、注意:

  1.如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。例如:

  I wished I hadnt spent so much money.

  我要是那时没有花掉那么多钱就好了。

  2. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求

  I wish he would answer my letter.

  I wish prices would come down.

  I wish you would help me.

  I wish you would stop asking silly questions.

  一:

  1.The boy acted ____ he had never lived in Canada before.

  A. as though B. even if C. as D. since

  2. ____ to the doctor right away, he might have been alive.

  A. If he went B. Were he gone C. Should he have gone D. Had he gone

  3. If you were older, I ____ you to go there yesterday.

  A. will allow B. should allow C. would have allowed D. had allowed

  4. The secretary suggested that they ____ the men in at once.

  A. had brought B. should have brought C. brought D. bring

  5. I wish I ____ able to tell him all about it last night.

  A. was B. were C. had been D. should be

  6. If we ____ here ten minutes earlier, we ___ the bus.

  A. arrived/would catch B. arrived/would have caught

  C. had arrived/had caught D. had arrived/would have caught

  7. If I ____ more time, I would have gone with him.

  A. had B. had had C. have had D. would have

  8. He was very busy yesterday, otherwise he ____ to the meeting.

  A. would come B. came C. would have come D. had come

  9. The Jade Emperor ordered that the Monkey King _____ right away.

  A. would be arrested B. must be arrested C. be arrested D. had to be arrested

  10. Jane’s uncle insisted ____ in this hotel any longer.

  A. not staying B. not to stay C. that he not stay D. staying not

  11. Don’t touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _____ you.

  A. would come to B. would come at C. would have come toward D. will come to

  12. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today.

  A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be

  13. How I wish I ____ to repair the watch! I only made it worse.

  A. had tried B. hadn’t tried C. have tried D. didn’t try

  14. He demanded that the laboratory report ___ immediately after the experiment was done.

  A. was written B. be written C. must be written D. would be written

  15. The man insisted that he _____ there.

  A. should send B. would be sent C. sent D. be sent

  16. If he had not gone out in the storm _____.

  A. he will be alive now B. he would be alive now

  C. he would have been alive now

  17. If it ___ tomorrow, what would we do?

  A. rains B. were to rain C. would rain D. rain

  18. It is required that you ____ at six.

  A. will arrive B. arrive C. arrived D. would arrive

  19. If only I _____ how to operate an electronic computer as you do.

  A. had known B. would know C. should know D. knew

  20. He spoke in a quiet, distinct voice, as though his thought _____.

  A. was r away B. had been r away C. were r away D. went r away.

  21. If it ___ rain, we ___ get wet.

  A. is to, should B. were to, would

  C. were going to, would D. was going to, should

  22. If he ___ to the teacher attentively, he ___ the answer to the problem now.

  A. had listened, would have known B. listened, would know

  C. listened, would have known D. had listened, would know

  23. But for the party, he ___ of hunger 30 years ago.

  A. would have died B. would die C. must have died D. must die

  24. ___ today, he would get there for holiday.

  A. Was he leaving B. Were he to leave C. Would he leave D. If he leaves

  25. I would have come earlier, but I ___ that you were waiting for me.

  A. didn’t know B. hadn’t know C. would have known D. haven’t known

  26. It’s high time that we ___ to school.

  A. would to B. went C. go D. will go

  27. It seems as if it ___ rain.

  A. will to B. is going to C. is to D. were going to

  28. I’d rather you ___ right away.

  A. leave B. left C. will leave D. to leave

  29. He is working hard for fear that he ___.

  A. ils B. iled C. would il D. il

  30. It is really strange that the girl ___ so early.

  A. has been married B. has married C. be married D. would marry

  31. Supposing I ___ this gift, what would he say?

  A. accept B. accepted C. should accept D. would accept

  32. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ___ two weeks to prepare for the exam.

  A. give B. should give C. be given D. would be given

  33. I was busy yesterday, otherwise I ___ your birthday party.

  A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended

  34. He insisted that he ___ me before.

  A. see B. should see C. had seen D. saw

  35. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years.

  A. were B. would be C. have been D. had been

  36. We ___ our lives had it not been for the policeman.

  A. would have lost B. should lose C. might lose D. could have lost

  37. ---- I thought you would come back tomorrow.

  ---- I would if I ___ to attend a meeting.

  A. don’t have B. didn’t have C. will not have D. would not have

  38. He wishes ___ mistakes.

  A. he doesn’t always make B. he isn’t always

  C. he didn’t always make D. he wouldn’t always

  39. It ___ very nice if only it were possible.

  A. will be B. would be C. is D. were

  40. Without your help, our team ___ the last match.

  A. won’t win B. will lose C. wouldn’t have won D. can’t win

  41. I wish I ___ what to do.

  A. knew B. have known C. know D. would know

  42. ___, I would take an umbrella with me.

  A. Had I been you B. I were you C. Were I you D. I had been you

  43. If I had hurried, I ___ the train.

  A. would catch B. could catch C. would have caught D. had caught

  44. He insisted that John ___ it.

  A. do B. does C. did D. would do

  45. It is high time we ___ off.

  A. are B. were C. be D. will be

  46. He felt as if he ___ more time to study for the test.

  A. needs B. were needed C. needed D. need

  47. It is important that I ___ with Mr. Williams immediately.

  A. speak B. spoke C. will speak D. to speak

  48. James wishes he ___ the football game instead of the film.

  A. saw B. see C. had been seen D. had seen

  49. I wish ___.

  A. he left B. he leaves me alone C. he be left D. he would leave me alone

  50. If I had known that, I ___ so.

  A. wouldn’t do B. wouldn’t have done C. won’t do D. have not done

  51. The doctor suggested that she ___.

  A. will not smoke B. not smoke C. would not smoke D. did not smoke

  52. If I ___ you, I wouldn’t return the call.

  A. be B. am C. was D. were

  53. You talk as if you ___ there.

  A. were really B. has really been C. had really been D. would really be

  54. He suggested that the work ___ at once.

  A. would started B.would be started C.should started D. should be started

  55. It is strange that such a thing ___ in your school.

  A. will happen B. happens C. should happen D. happened

  56. It is imperative that you ___ on time.

  A. are B. will be C. be D. would be

  57. I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I ___ there.

  A. was B. were C. had been D. went

  58. It is time we ___ up our results.

  A. sum B. summed C. will sum D. would sum

  59. If the doctor had been available, the child ___.

  A. would not die B. would not have died C. could not die D. could not have died

  60. Dr. Bethune worked hard as if he ___.

  A. never had felt tired B. had never felt tired

  C. never felt tired D. was tired never

  虚拟语气专项一参考答案

  1.A 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. C 10. C

  11. B 12. D 13. B 14. B 15. D 16. B 17. B 18. B 19. D 20. B

  21.B 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. B 27. B 28. B 29. D 30. C

  31. B 32. C 33. D 34. C 35. D 36. A 37. B 38. C 39. B 40. C

  41. A 42. C 43. C 44. A 45. B 46. C 47. A 48. D 49. D 50. B

  51. B 52. D 53. C 54. D 55. C 56. C 57. C 58. B 59. B 60.B

  Unit 1 Art

  一、 短语集锦

  1) 详细地 in detail

  2) 集中精力 concentrate on

  3) 对……的看法 attitude to/towards

  4) 拥有 take possession of

  5) 使某人信服 convince sb of/that

  6) 巧合 by coincidence

  7) 大量 a great deal (of)

  8) 脱离、摆脱 break away from

  9) 渴望 be eager for sth/ to do sth

  10) 接受……为 accept … as…

  11) 也就是说 that is (to say)

  12) 尝试、 attempt to do

  13) 本人 in the flesh

  14) 一束鲜花 a bunch of flowers

  15) 宁愿…而不愿…would rather do…than do…; prefer to do… rather than do…

  16) 偏爱 have a preference for

  17) 吸引、恳求 appeal to

  18) 各种各样的 a variety of

  二、句型汇集

  1) 显然,这是我最不想做的一件事情。(evident)

  It is evident that this is the last thing I want to do.

  2)我相信我将会拥有灿烂的未来。(convince)

  I’m convinced that I will embrace a bright future.

  3)我宁愿亲自送她去上海浦东国际机场。(would rather)

  I would rather walk her to Shanghai Pudong International Airport myself.

  4)他一直在努力着让世界变得更美好,真实太了不起了。(amazing)

  It is amazing that he is always trying to make the world a better place to live.

  Unit 2 Poems

  一、 短语集锦

  1) 列举 make a list of

  2) 给某人留下印象 leave/make an impression on sb

  3) 传递某种感情 convey certain emotions

  4) 表达自己的思想 express oneself

  5) 有道理、有意义 make sense

  6) 放松,不要紧张 take it easy

  7) 用完,消耗光 run out (of sth)

  8) 由……组成 be made up of/ consist of

  9) 受……欢迎 be popular with

  10) 把A翻译成B translate A into B

  11) 尤其、特别 in particular

  12) 从……中挑选 choose from

  13) 值得 be worth + n / doing sth

  14) 碰巧 by chance/ accident

  15) 在……底端 at the bottom of

  16) 测试;试验 try out

  17) 发出; let out

  二、句型汇集

  1)明星受年轻人的欢迎有各种各样的原因。(why)

  There are various reasons why pop stars are popular with young people.

  2)杭州西湖的美景给我留下了非常深刻的印象。(impression)

  The beauty of the West Lake in Hangzhou has left a good impression on me.

  3)如果你要买字典的话,有很多可供挑选。(choose)

  If you want to buy a dictionary, there are many to choose from.

  Unit 3 A healthy life

  一、 词汇集锦

  1) 在压力下 under stress

  2) 与……分享 share … with…

  3) 对……挑剔 be particular about

  4) 在两周之后 in two weeks time

  5) 由于 due to

  6) 放弃 give up

  7) 对……上瘾 be addicted to sth/ doing

  8) 习惯于 be accustomed to sth/ doing

  9) 脾气暴躁的 bad-tempered

  10) 重复;一再 over and over again

  11) 对……产生影响 have effect on

  12) 损坏; do damage to

  13) 停止做某事 quit doing

  14) 决定;选定 decide on

  15) 从……中获益 benefit from

  16) 扔掉 throw away

  17) 想要(做) feel like sth/ doing

  18) 提醒某人做 remind sb of sth/ to do/that

  19) 代替 instead of

  20) 不管;不顾 in spite of

  21) 冒险 take risks

  22) 养成做某事的习惯 get into the habit of

  23) 与病魔作斗争 fight disease

  24) 患上艾滋病 develop AIDS

  25) 感染 get infected with

  26) 可能…… It is likely that; be likely to do

  27) 对……紧张 be nervous about

  二、 句型汇集

  1) 感到惊奇吧,像我这样的年龄感到仍然很健康。(amazing)

  It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit.

  2) 你发现要放弃吸烟很困难。(find it …)

  You find it difficult to give up smoking.

  3) 我不知道你是谁,我也不在乎。(neither do I…)

  I don’t know who you are and neither do I care.

  4) 我想让你和我一样过上幸福美满的生活。(as…as)

  I want you to live as happy a life as I have.

  5) 每次你想放弃的时候,提醒你自己你周围的人们都在关心着你。(every time…)

  Every time you feel like giving up, remind yourself that the people around you are concerned about you.

  6) 覆水难收。(It is no good/use…)

  It is no good crying over spilt milk.

  7) 如果你感染了HIV,你很有可能会死。(…likely…)

  It’s likely that you will die if you get infected with HIV.

  Unit 4 Global warming

  一、 短语集锦

  1) 全球气候变暖 global warming

  2) 依赖 depend on

  3) 比作/比较 compare…to…

  4) 发生 come about

  5) 人类活动 human activity

  6) 赞同;订购 subscribe to

  7) 温室效应 greenhouse effect

  8) 大量的 a quantity of/quantities of

  9) 上升 go up

  10) 导致 result in

  11) 反对 be opposed to

  12) 积累;建立 build up

  13) 即使 even if

  14) 继续做 keep on doing

  15) 扫视;撇一下 glance at

  16) 大体上 on the whole

  17) 代表 on behalf of

  18) 提倡(做……) advocate + n/doing/that

  19) 产生影响;起作用make a difference to…

  20) put up with

  21) ……的结果 as a result of

  22) 开始做某事 get started with

  23) 电气设备 electrical appliances

  24) 只要 so/as long as

  25) 对……随意 be casual about

  26) 等等 and so on

  27) 使某人振作 refresh one’s spirit

  28) 你的贡献很有价值 Your contribution counts.

  二、 句型汇集

  1) 和他的工作相比较,她的要好得多。(compare…)

  Compared to/with his work, hers is much better.

  2) 毫不疑问,引起全球变暖的是人类的活动。(it is … that…)

  There is no doubt that it is human activity that has caused the global warming.

  3) 我代表我的学校向从欧洲远道而来的各位表示热烈的欢迎。(on behalf of)

  On behalf of my school, I’d like to extend my warm welcome to all of you coming all the way from Europe.

  4) 每个人都可以对这个世界产生巨大的影响。(make a difference)

  Every individual can make a big difference to the whole world.

  5) 每一秒钟都很重要(争分夺秒)。(count)

  Every second counts.

  Unit 5 The power of nature

  一、 短语集锦

  1) 考虑做……;被认为……consider doing; be considered to be/ to have done

  2) ……免受…… protect … from…

  3) 想象做…… imagine doing

  4) 适合 be suitable for

  5) 也;和 as well as

  6) 组成make up

  7) 遍及全世界 all over the world

  8) 科学设备 scientific equipment

  9) 被任命为…… be appointed as

  10) 被……覆盖 be covered with

  11) 全部 burn…to the ground

  12) 睡得很熟 be st asleep

  13) 正要做…这时…be about to do…when…

  14) 亮如白昼 as bright as day

  15) 在远处 in the distance

  16) 前往 make one’s way to …

  17) 对……怀着热情 be enthusiastic about

  18) 对……感到惊讶 be amazed at

  19) 使某吃一惊 take sb by surprise

  20) 匆匆看一遍glance through

  21) 自然区 nature reserve

  22) 由……到……不等 vary from…to…

  23) 是……的家乡/发源地be home to

  24) 多种多样的 a great diversity of

  25) 生小孩;引起 give birth to

  26) 有……的天赋 have a gift for sth

  二、 句型汇集

  1) 他被认为发明了第一台计算机。(consider)

  He is considered to have invented the first computer.

  2) 在完成了我的家庭作业之后,我前往了当地的自然区。(Having done…)

  Having finished my homework, I made my way to the local nature reserve.

  3) 昨天我正要送女儿去幼儿园,这时我的一个朋友顺道来看我了。(be about to…when…)

  Yesterday I was about to walk my daughter to the kindergarten when my friend dropped in on me.

  4) 他们肯定会同意我的观点。(certain)

  It’s certain that they will subscribe to my view.

  They will certain to subscribe to my view.

  5) 感到很疲倦,他一回家就睡觉了。(V+ing)

  Feeling exhausted, he went to bed as soon as he got home.

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