中学英语语法助动词与情态动词

文学网时间:2018-08-21 01:55:22

  (一)助动词

  助动词本身无词义,它仅仅是用来帮助主要动词构成各种时态、语态、语气以及否定和疑问结构。

  1)由be, have, shall(should), will(would)构成除现在一般时和过去一般时外的全部时态。如:

  I shall be here any minute.

   我将随时到达这里。(由shall构成将来一般时)

  The train is now rapidly approaching the city of Beijing.

   火车现在正迅速地临近城。(由is构成现在进行时)

  We shall be having rain, rain, and nothing but rain.

   我们会有没完没了的雨。(由shall be构成将来进行时)

  The roads were full of people. We hadnt foreseen that.

   上都是人。这是我们事先未料到的。(由had构成过去完成时)

  Soon they would have reached their time limit and must return to the camp.

  不久的时间就要到了,他们就得回营地了。(由would have构成过去将来完成时)

  He has been scoring plenty of goals this season.

   在这个(足球)赛季里,他踢进了许多球。(由has been构成现在完成进行时)

  2)由be构成被动语态。如:

  One is not guilty until he is proved.

   在没有证明有罪之前,人都是无罪的。(现在一般时的被动式)

  She almost felt that she was being mocked.

   她几乎感觉到她在被嘲弄。(过去进行时的被动式)

  I suspected that I had been followed and watched since I arrived in London.

   我怀疑我到达伦敦以后就已被和。(过去完成时的被动式)

  I know he hates being interrupted.

   我知道他不喜欢别人打断他的话。(动名词的被动式)

  3)由had, should, would, should have, would have等构成各种虚拟语气。如:

  If I had Jims build, Id go out for the wrestling team.

   假如我有吉姆那样的体格,我早就去参加摔跤队了。

  The soup wouldve been better if it had had less salt.

   假如少放点盐,这汤会好喝得多?

  4)由do构成现在一般时和过去一般时的疑问结构。如:

  When do we meet again?

   我们什么时候再见?

  Did you know the hot dog did not originate in the United States, but in Germany?

   你知道“热狗”不是来源于美国,而是来源于吗?

  5)由do+ not构成现在一般时和过去一般时的否定结构。如:

  Dont knit your brow like that.

   别那样皱眉头。

  We didnt think wed be this late.

   我们没想到我们会到得这么晚。

  当两个或两个以上包含相同助动词的谓语动词并列时,后面的助动词通常省略。如:

  The letter will be typed and sent off immediately.

   这封信将立即打好并发出。

  助动词在句中一般不重读,但当它代替前面的动词或强调动词的意义时则应重读。如:

  -Do you speak English? 你会说英语吗?

  -Yes, I do. 是,我会说。

  But I have done it. 但是我把它干了。

  be的形式和用法

  助动词be有八种形式:

   肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  原形 be

  现在式第一人称单数I am ’m am not arent/m not

  现在式第三 人称单数he, she, it is s is not isnt /s not

  现在式第二人称单、复数和第 一、三人称复数you, we, they are re are not arent/re not

  过去式第一、三人称 单数I, he,she, it was was not wasnt

  过去式第二人称单、复数 和第一、三人称复数you, we, they were were not werent

  现在分词 Being not being

  过去分词 been not been

  [注]在英国英语中,arent使用很广泛。在美国英语中使用较多的是被认为非标准的aint。

  助动词be的主要用法是:

  1)与现在分词构成各种进行时态以及与have和现在分词构成完成进行时态。如:

  Fear of crime is slowly paralyzing American society.

   犯罪恐惧症正逐渐地使美国社会陷于瘫痪。

  The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered.

   电话铃响了三分钟才有人接。

  2)与过去分词构成被动语态。如:

  He was an ardent fighter for freedom and independence. He was loved by millions and hated only by a handful.

   他是个争取和的热诚战士,为成百万人所爱戴,为仅仅一小撮人所。

  They came to Europe where their mother had been educated and stayed three years.

   他们来到他们的母亲受教育的欧洲,并待了三年。

  此外,be还可用作连系动词。如:

  It was one of the happiest afternoons he had ever spent.

   那是他有生以来最愉快的一个下午。

  词组be to有情态意义,详见“情态动词”。

  have的形式和用法

  助动词have有五种形式:

   肯定式 缩 略

  肯定式 否定式 缩 略

  否定式

  原形 have ve have not havent ve not

  现在式第三人称单数 has s has not hasnt s not

  过去式 had d had not hadnt

   d not

  现在分词 having not having

  过去分词 had

  助动词have的主要用法是:

  1)与过去分词构成各种完成时态。如:

  Newton has explained the movements of the moon from the attractions of the earth.

  牛顿阐明了月球受到地球引力而运行的规律。

  Reluctantly, she opened the door, she had not kept it locked; there had been no need.

  她勉强地开了门。她没有锁门,也没有必要锁门。

  2)与been+ 现在分词构成各种完成进行时态。如:

  Men have been digging salt out of it for six hundred years. and yet there seems as much left as ever.

  人们在这里掘盐已六百年,但盐似乎还是那么多。

  In another months time Mr. Henry will have been teaching here for exactly thirty years.

   再过一个月,亨利先生就将在这里从事教学整30年了。

  此外,have还可用作实义动词,意谓“有”、“吃”等。如:

  Bad news has wings.

   丑事传千里。

  Youre anaemic, you must have some iron.

   你患贫血症了,应该服一些铁。

  have还可用作使役动词。如:

  We now have the problem solved.

   我们现已把这个问题解决了。

  I had a tooth out this afternoon.

   我今天下午拔了一颗牙。

  have用作实义动词时不能使用缩略形式。词组have to有情态意义,详见“情态动词”。

  do的形式和用法

  助动词do有三种形式:

   肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  原形 do do not Don’t

  现在式第三人称单数 does does not doesnt

  过去式 did did not didnt

  [注]do用作实义动词时有现在分词doing和过去分词done。

  助动词do的主要用法是:

  1)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的疑问句。如:

  Do you always carry an umbrella?

   你经常带伞吗?

  Did everything come off all right?

   一切都进行得顺利吗?

  2)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的否定句。如:

  She didnt cool down for hours after that argument.

   在那场之后,她有好几个小时都没平静下来。

  Dont worry, he will be brought to book for his wickedness one day.

   别担心,他的总有一天要受到惩罚的。

  [注]如用其它时态,疑问句的助动词须提至主语前,否定句的助动词之后加not。如: ①Will he be able to hear at such a distance?

   离这么远,他会听得到吗?

  ②You havent been abroad before, have you?

   你以前没出过国,是吗?

  3)用于替代,以避免重复。如:

   -May I come round in the morning?

   上午我可以来拜访你吗?

   -Yes, please do.

   可以,请来吧。(do替代come round)

  I dont like coffee and neither does my wife.

   我不喜欢咖啡,我妻子也不喜欢。(does替代like)

  4)用于强调。如:

  My parents think I didnt study for my exams, but I did study.

   我爸爸妈妈认为我考试前没有复习,但我是复习了。

  Although I have little time for entertainment, I do go to the theatre once in a while.

   虽然我很少有时间娱乐,但我还是间或去看戏。

  Were very pleased that she does intend to come.

   她的确打算来,我们非常高兴。

  The letter we were expecting never did arrive.

   我们期待的信一直没有到。

  -Do you remember how kind she was?

   你记得她多友善吗?

  -I certainly do remember.

   当然记得。

  5)用于恳求。如:

  Do come to the party tonight

   务请今晚来参加晚会。

   Do be quiet!

  请别作声!

  此外,do还可用作实义动词,意谓“做”、“干”等等。如:

  She interrupted him before his speech was done.

   她不等他把话说完就打断了他。

  will you do me a vor?

   坏书有很大害处。

  Bad books do great harm.

   你愿帮我个忙吗?

  She is doing the dishes.

   她正在洗碟子。

  I will do my best.

   我愿尽力而为。

  shall(should)和will(would)的形式和用法

  助动词shall(过去式should)和will(过去式would)有下列几种形式:

  肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  shall ll shall not shant

  should should not shouldnt

  will ll will not wont

  ll not

  would d would not wouldnt

  d not

  助动词shall(should)和will(would)可用于构成各种将来和过去将来时态,shall(should)用于第一人称,will(would)用于第二、第三人称。在当代英语(尤其是美国英语中),will(would)常用于一切人称。

  1)shall用于各种将来时态的第一人称(当代英语多用will). 如:

  We shall be going away tomorrow by an early train.

   我们将于明日搭早班火车离开。

  2)should用于各种过去将来时态的第一人称(当代英语多用would)。如:

  So this was the place where I should study for the three years. It made a bad first impression.

  后来,这就是我学习三年的地方,它给我的第一个印象可不好。

  3)will用于各种将来时态的第二、三人称。如:

  They will be looking for anyone connected with her.

   他们将寻找每一个与她有往来的人。

  4)would用于各种过去将来时态的第二、三人称。如:

  They said it would be fine.

   人们说天气会很好。

  shall(should)和will(would)可用作情态动词,详见“情态动词”。

  should和would可以构成虚拟语气,详见“虚拟语气”。

  (二)情态动词

  情态动词只有情态意义,即它所表示的是说话人对动作的观点,如需要、可能、意愿或怀疑等。

  情态动词有以下特征:

  1)在形式上,情态动词没有实义动词的各种变化,只有could, would, had to, was(或were)to, might等几个过去式。其它如must, ought to等的过去式皆与现在式同形。

  2)在意义上,大多数情态动词有多个意义。如can可表“能够”“可能”“允许”等,may可表“可能”“允许”“目的”“让步”等。

  3)在用法上,情态动词与助动词一样,须后接动词原形,构成谓语动词。

  can(could)的形式和用法

  can(could)有下列几种形式:

   肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  现在式 can cannot cant

  过去式 could could not couldnt

  [注]美国英语中往往用can not替代cannot。

  can是现在式,多用于指现在或将来。如:

  He can speak English.

   他能说英语。

  could是过去式,多用于指过去。如:

  He could speak English when he was a child.

   他小的时候就能说英语了。

  但could亦可用于指现在,表虚拟语气,或作为can的委婉形式。如:

  That man could do with a haircut.

   那人需要理个发了。(表现在)

  If I could go, I should be glad.

   假如我能去,那我就会很高兴。(表虚拟语气)

  Could I help you?

   我能帮你干点什么?(比Can I help you委婉)

  can (could)的基本用法是:

  1)表能够。如:

  I can lift this stone.

   我能举起这块石头。(表体能)

  Can you use chopsticks?

   你能用筷子吗?(表技能)

  I can see him tonight.

   我今晚能见到他。(表可能)

  can表能够时与短语be able to同义,但后者可用于名种时态,can表能够时可用于各种句式。如:

  She can play a few tunes on the piano.

   她能在钢琴上弹一些简单的调子。(肯定句)

  Can you write with your left hand?

   你能用左手写字吗?(疑问句)

  I can not promise you anything.

   我不能答应你任何事。(否定句)

  can亦可指将来。如:

  We can discuss your after lunch.

   午饭后我们能讨论你的论文。

  如需要强调将来时间时,则可用短语shall/will be able to。如:

  I shall be able to earn my own living soon.

   我很快就能自立了。

  He says hell be able to be home for Christmas.

   他说他能回家过圣诞节。

  Could主要指过去。如:

  I said that I could go.

   我说我能去。

  单纯叙述过去事实时,最好用was或were+ able。如:

  I was able to help you yesterday.

   我昨天能帮你的。

  但could也常可指现在或将来。如:

  You could phone her, I suppose.

   我看你可以给她打电话。

  The river could easily overflow, couldnt it?

   河水可能容易泛滥,不是吗?

  如could与动词原形的完成式连用,则指过去未实现的动作。如:

  She could have explained the mystery.

   她本能够解释这个秘密的。(实际上未解释)

  2)表可能。如:

  The moon cannot always be at the full.

   月不可能常圆。

  can表可能时可指现在或将来。如:

  You can perhaps obtain a dog from the Dogs Home.

   你也许可以从养狗场弄到一条狗。(肯定句)

  What can he mean?

   他可能是什么意思呢?(疑问句)

  We cant use the indefinite article with this noun.

   我们不可以在这个名词前用不定冠词。(否定句)

  表可能时,could可指过去。如:

  He said he couldnt agree more.

   他说他再同意不过了。

  could亦可指现在或将来,表虚拟语气。如:

  It could be my mother.

   可能是我母亲。

  He could arrive tomorrow.

   他可能明天到。

  could与完成式连用,则指过去未实现的动作。如:

  It could have been seen from here if it had not been so dark.

   如果天不那么黑,你可能从这儿望见它的。(实际上已望不见)

  3)表允许。如:

  You can borrow my bike tomorrow.

   明天你可以借用我的自行车。

  表这个意义时,can用于疑问句时表要求,用于否定句时表不许。如:

  Can you lend me a hand?

   你能帮我一把吗?

  This sort of thing cant go on!

   这类事不能再继续了!

  could指现在时,仅用于疑问句表更委婉的要求。如:

  Could I interrupt a moment?

   我可以插句话吗?

  但这种表允许的用法可用于间接引语。如:

  Father said I could swim in the river.

   爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。

  4)表怀疑。如:

  Can it be true?

   那会是真的吗?

  表这个意义时,can仅用于一般疑问句,并有感彩。

  can用于一般式,指现在。如:

  Can he really be ill?

   他真的会病了吗?

  can用于进行式,指将来。如:

  Can he be the investigation all alone?

   他会独自进行调查吗?

  can用于完成式,指过去。如:

  Can she have told a lie?

   她会吗?

  can用于完成式或完成进行式时亦可表持续的动作。如:

  Can she really have been at home all this time?

   她真的会一直在家吗?

  could指现在时亦可有这些用法,但暗含着更不确定的意义。如:

   Could it be true?

   Could she be telling lies?

   Could he have said it?

   Could he have been at home all this time?

   Could she have been waiting for us so long?

  5)cant表不大可能。如:

  It cant be true.

   那不大可能是真的。

  cant会有感彩。如:

  She cant be really ill.

   她不大可能真的病了。(指现在)

  She cant have been at home all this time.

   她不大可能一直在家。(指过去)

  could亦可有这些用法,但语气委婉。如:

   It couldnt be true.

   She couldnt be telling lies.

   She couldnt have said it.

   She couldnt have been at home all this time.

   She couldnt have been waiting for us so long.

  6)can和could用于特殊疑问句,有感彩,表惊讶、等。如:

  What can(could) he mean?

   他可能是什么意思呢?

  7)can与could的比较:can与could表能够与可能时,can表真实,could表非真实。如:

  He can speak English.

  他能说英语。(表能够)

  He could speak English if necessary.

  他在必要时能说英语。

  You can get the book from the library.

  你可以从图书馆借到这本书。(表可能)

  You could get the book from the library if necessary.

  你在必要时可从图书馆借到这本书。

  表允许和推测时,只是could语气较为委婉,含义较不确定。如:

  Can I use your pen?

  我可以借用你的笔吗?(表允许)

  Could I use your pen?

  (较为委婉)

  Can it be true?

  那可能是真的吗?(表推测)

  Could it be true?

  (较不确定)

  It cant be true.

  那不大可能是真的。(表不大可能)

  It couldnt be true.

  (较不确定)

  8)用于固定习语。如:

  She cant help crying.

   她不禁哭起来。

  He couldnt help laughing.

   他不禁笑起来。

  may(might)的形式和用法

  may(might)有下列几种形式:

   肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  现在式 may may not maynt

  过去式 might might not mightnt

  [注]maynt比较少见。

  may是现在式,多指现在。如:

  It may be true.

  那可能是真实的。

  might是may的过去式,可用于指过去。如:

  He told me that it might be true.

  他告诉过我那可能是真的。

  亦可用于指现在,但语气较为缓和、委婉,含义更不确定,或表虚拟语气。如:

  It might be true.

  那可能是真的。

  Might I come and see you?

  我可以来看你吗?

  may(might)的基本用法是:

  1)表可能,暗含不确定,等于possibly, perhaps或maybe。如:

  He may be busy getting ready for his trip.

  他也许在忙于准备外出旅行。

  may表可能时,可用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  He may be at home.

  他也许在家。

  He may not be at home.

  他也许不在家。

  may表可能时,常指将来。如:

  He may come soon.

  他也许马上就来。

  may也可指现在。如:

  He may not know about it.

  他也许不知道那件事。

  I never see him about now. For all I know, he may be writing a book.

  我近来从未见他来着。就我所知,他也许在写书。

  may用于完成式时指过去。如:

  You may have read some account of the matter.

  你也许读到过关于这件事的一些报道。

  may用于完成式或完成进行式时亦可指持续的动作。如:

  He may have been at home for about two hours.

  他也许在家待了两小时了。

  He may have been waiting for us for an hour.

  他也许等我们一小时了。

  might表可能时亦可有这些用法,与may的区别在于它的含义更不确定。如:

  He might come soon.

  他也许马上就会来的。

  He might be ill.

  他也许生病了吧。

  He might be doing his lessons now.

  他也许正在课吧。

  He might have spoken to her yesterday.

  他昨天也许同她说过话吧。

  2)表允许。如:

  The director is alone now. So you may see him now.

  局长现在是独自一人,所以你可以现在去见他。

  表这个意义时,may可用于肯定句和疑问句,亦可用于否定句,但不太常用。如:

  You may smoke in here.

  你可以在这儿抽烟。

  May I smoke in here?

  我可以在这儿抽烟吗?

  You may not smoke in here.

  你不可在这儿抽烟。

  may表允许时仅用于一般式。

  might用于疑问句,语气更委婉。如:

  Might I join you?

  我可以参加你们一道吗?

  might亦可用于间接引语。如:

  He told me that I might smoke in the room.

  他告诉我可以在房间里抽烟。

  3)表责备,只用might,用于肯定句。可用于一般式和完成式,后者则表未实现的动作。

  如:

  You might ask before you borrow my car.

  你可以先问问我再借我的车子嘛。

  You might have helped me.

  你满可以帮我一把嘛。

  4)may与might的比较:

  might可表虚拟语气,may则不可。如:

  It might help a little if you would only keep clean.

  你只要愿意保持清洁,情况或许就会好一些。

  在多数情况下,might比may语气更为缓和委婉,含义更不确定。如:

  May I speak to him now?

  Might I speak to him now?

  He may come a little later.

  He might come a little later.

  表可能时只用may指现在,一般不用might指过去,might只用于间接引语中。表责备时则

  只用might。如:

  You may find the book at the library.

  你可以在图书馆找到这本书。

  You might have considered your parents feelings.

  你本可考虑你父母的感情嘛。

  5)用于固定习语。如:

  You may as well give him the letter.

  你还是把信给他为好。

  I might as well stay at home tonight.

  我今晚还是待在家里吧。

  may可用于某些宾语从句和目的、让步状语从句。如:

  I fear he may ll ill.

  我恐怕他会生病。(用于宾语从句)

  He is coming here so that they may discuss it without delay.

  他就要到这里来,这样他们可能立即讨论那件事。(用于目的状语从句)

  However cold it may be, well go skiing.

  天不管多冷,我们都要去滑雪。(用于让步状语从句)

  7)can与may的比较:

  can与may只有在表可能和允许时意义相同。但在这种情况下,它们也不能随意互换:表可能时,may仅用于肯定句,而can则可用于各种句式。如:

  He may find this book at the library.

  他可以在图书馆找到这本书。(may用于肯定句)

  He can find this book at the library.

  他能在图书馆找到这本书。(can用于肯定句)

  Can he find this book at the library?

  他能在图书馆找到这本书吗?(can用于疑问句)

  He cannot find this book at the library.

  他不可能在图书馆找到这本书。(can用于否定句)

  表允许时,二者意义无甚区别,只是may较正式些,而can则比较口语化。如:

  May I speak to you for a moment, professor?

  我可以跟你谈一会儿吗,教授?

  Can I have a cup of milk, mother?

  我可以喝杯牛奶吗,妈妈?

  must的形式和用法

  must只有一种形式,其现在式与过去式同形。

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  must must not mustnt

  它可指现在或将来,用于完成式时则可指过去,其过去式仅用于间接引语。

  must的基本用法是:

  1)表义务。如:

  You must talk to your daughter about her future.

  你必须跟你的女儿谈谈她的前途。

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式,并用于肯定句和疑问句。

  2)在否定结构中表不许。如:

  He must not leave his room.

  他不许离开他的房间。

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式。

  3)表坚定的。如:

  You must come and see us when youre in London.

  你到伦敦后应当来看看我们。

  You mustnt miss the film. It is very good.

  你不可错过那个影片,它很好看。

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式,用于肯定句和否定句。

  4)表推测,暗含很大的可能性。如:

  He must be ill. He looks so pale.

  他一定是病了。他的脸色苍白。

  表这个意义时,must仅用于肯定句,不能用于疑问句或否定句。它可以用于不同时式,仅可指现在,动态动词则用于进行式。如:

  Lets have something to eat. You must be starving.

  我们吃点东西吧。你一定饿了。

  5)可用于不同时式,表不同意义。表义务。如:

  You must stay here.

  你必须待在这儿。

  亦可表推测。如:

  He must be over fifty.

  他一定有五十开外了。

  must可用于完成式,指过去。如:

  It is six oclock. She must have come home.

  现在是六点,她一定到家了。

  must用于完成进行时,可表持续的动作。如:

  It must have been raining all the night. There are big puddles in the garden.

  雨一定是下了整整一夜,花园里有的水。

  6)用于间接引语,表过去。如:

  He said he must go.

  他说他必须去。

  7)用于固定习语。如:

  He must needs go there.

  他偏偏要去那儿。

  8)must与may的比较。二者均可表推测,但侧重点不一样:may暗含不确定,must暗含很可能。如:

  For all I know, he may be an actor. His ce seems so miliar.

  就我所看,他可能是个演员,他似乎很面熟。

  He must be an actor. His voice carries so well.

  他一定是个演员,他的声音很洪亮。

  may和must均可用于否定句,表不许,但may较少用。对may表要求时的否定回答,一般用must not或cannot。如:

  -May I smoke here?

   我可以在这儿抽烟吗?

  -No, you mustnt(cant).

   不,不行。

  have to的形式和用法

  词组have to也是情态动词。它由have+ to组成,因此具有have的各种时式。如:

  He is an invalid and has to have a nurse.

  他是个病弱之人,需要照顾。

  She knew what she had to do.

  她知道她需要做什么。

  I shall have to reconsider my position.

  我将不得不重新考虑我的立场。

  He is always having to exercise judgment.

  他经常需要进行判断。

  have to的疑问和否定结构多用助动词do构成。如:

  Why do I have to do everything?

  为什么事事都得我干?

  Did he have to tell them about it?

  他必须把那件事告诉他们吗?

  You dont have to explain.

  你不必作解释了。

  have to的基本用法是:

  1)表客观的义务或需要。可用于各种句式,但只用于一般式。如:

  He had to do it.

  他必须做那件事。

  Did he have to do it?

  他得做那件事吗?

  在否 定句中,have to表不需要,must表不许。试比较:

  You dont have to go there.

  你不需要去那儿。

  You mustnt go there.

  你不可去那儿。

  2)在口语中,have got to亦可表义务和需要,与have to基本同义。如:

  He has got to go right now.

  Has he got to go right now?

  He hasnt got to go just yet.

  3)固定词组had better表可取,意谓“最好”,或“应该”,常用于一般式。如:

  Youd better get some sleep.

  你最 好去睡一睡。(对同辈或小辈,对长辈不可用you had better)

  Hadnt we better stop now?

  我们现在停下来不好吗?(亦可说Had we better not…?但had better一般不可用于肯定疑问句)

  有时可省去had。如:

  Better say yes, if they ask you.

  如果他们问你,你最好说“是”。

  had better亦可用于进行式,意谓“最好立即”。如:

  I think Id better be going.

  我想我最好就走。

  had better亦可用于完成式,表未完成动作。如:

  You had better have done that.

  你最好把那件事做完。(可是你没有做完)

  [注]had best与had better同义,但较少用。

  be to的形式和用法

  词组be to亦可看作情态动词。它只有现在式和过去式两种形式。如:

  The book of Irish Fairy Tales is to appear soon.

  这本童话集即将出版。

  We were to meet at six.

  我们约定六点见面。

  be to的基本用法是:

  1)表计划,只用于肯定句和疑问句。如:

  When is the wedding to be?

  婚礼什么时候举行?

  We were to discuss it the following week.

  我们打算下周讨论那件事。

  be to 的过去式可用于完成式,表未完成的计划。如:

  I promised to go to a club with her last Tuesday, and I really forgot all about it. We were to have played a duet together.

  我答应本周二同她去俱乐部,可我真的把这事全忘了。我们原打算一起二重唱的。

  2)表命令,只用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once.

  全体下级军官都必须立即向上校报告。

  3)表可能,多用于被动结构。如:

  Her ther was often to be seen in the bar of this hotel.

  在这家旅馆的酒吧间经常可见到她父亲。

  Where is he to be found?

  在哪儿可找到他?

  4)表应该,多用现在式。如:

  What is to be done?

  应该怎么办?

  Hes to blame.

  该怪他。

  5)表注定,多用过去式。如:

  He was to be my teacher and friend for many years to come.

  在后来许多年里,他是我的老师和朋友。

  6)用于固定习语。如:

  What am I to do?

  我该怎么办?

  7)用于条件从句。如:

  If we are to succeed, we must redouble our efforts.

  我们要想成功,必须加倍努力才行。(are to意为“想要”)

  8)must, have to与be to的比较:表现在时,三者皆表义务,但侧重不一样。must强调说话者主观的看法。如:

  I must do it.

  我必须做那件事。

  have to强调客观的需要。如:

  What a pity you have to go now.

  可惜你马上要走了。

  be to强调应该。如:

  The traffic regulations are to be observed.

  应该遵守交通规则。

  用过去式时,must只用于间接引语中。如:

  He said he must do it himself.

  他说过他必须独自去做那件事。

  had to表客观需要。如:

  I had to sell my car.

  我只得卖车。

  was(或were)to表过去的动作。如:

  We were to meet him at the station.

  我们打算去车站接他。(在一定的上下文中也可意谓“我们本打算去车站接他的”)

  be going to的形式和用法

  词组be going to亦可看作情态动词,有现在式和过去式两种形式。

  be going to的基本用法是:

  1)表打算。如:

  What are you going to do tomorrow?

  你明天打算干什么?

  2)表即将。如:

  Look out! The ice is going to crack!

  当心!冰要塌了!

  3)表决心。如:

  Im going to oppose the proposal.

  我要反对这项。

  4)表肯定。如:

  Theres going to be trouble.

  要出事了。

  5)表可能。如:

  Its going to rain.

  要下雨了。

  6)表命令。如:

  Now you are going to hurry.

  现在你要快点了。

  7)词组be about to亦有情态意义,表即将。如:

  The meeting is about to begin.

  会议即将开始。

  ought to的形式和用法

  情态动词ought to只有一种形式:

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  ought to ought not to oughtnt to

  ought to的基本用法是:

  1)表义务,用于各种句式。如:

  You ought to go to see the doctor.

  你应该去瞧大夫。

  You oughtnt to smoke so much?

  你不应该抽这么多烟。

  Ought you to smoke so much?

  你应该抽这么多烟吗?

  [注]在美国英语中,ought to在否定和疑问句中可省去to, 如:

  You oughtnt smoke so much.

  你不应该抽这么多烟。

  Ought you smoke so much?

  你应该抽这么多烟吗?

  一般说来,ought to用以指将来,指现在时则用于进行式。如:

  At your age you ought to be earning your living.

  你到这个年龄应当自食其力了。

  ought to亦可用于完成式,在肯定句中表未完成的动作。如:

  You ought to have done something to help him.

  你本应该做些事去帮助他。

  在否定句中,则表已完成的动作。如:

  You oughtnt to have married her, David. It was a great mistake.

  你本不该跟她结婚,戴维,那是个大错误。

  在间接引语中表过去时形式不变。如:

  He said you ought to tell the police.

  他说你应当去报警。

  [注]ought to往往与should同义,在生活交际中人们多用后者。但有时ought to有针对性,should则表一般的忠告,试比较:

  We ought not to tell lsehoods. 我们可不应该说。

  We should not tell lsehoods. 我们不应该说。

  2)表推测,暗含很大的可能,其语气较must弱。如:

  Ask John. He ought to know.

  去问约翰吧。他该知道。

  shall与should的形式和用法

  shall和should用作助动词时,should是shall的过去式;用作情态动词时,shall和should是两个不同的词。

  1)shall表义务,用于第二、第三人称。如:

  You shall do as you see me do.

  你照我的样子办。

  He shall be punished if he disobeys.

  他如不服从就要受处罚。

  在当代英语中,shall多用于正式法律文字。如:

  The vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair.

  卖方须完好地设备。

  有时在从句中相当于must。如:

  It has been decided that the proposal shall not be opposed.

  已经决定不得反对这项提议。

  2)shall表许诺,用于第二、第三人称,用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  You shall have my answer tomorrow.

  你明天可以得到我的答复。

  She shall get her share.

  她可以得到她的一份。

  3)shall表征询意见,用于第一、第三人称,并用于疑问句。如:

  Shall I get you some fresh coffee, Miss Mary?

  玛丽小姐,我给您点淡咖啡好吗?

  What shall he do next?

  他下一步干什么呢?

  [注]美国英语亦可用will,如:

  Will I see you in the morning?No?Then good luck to you.

  (我明早见你好吗?不行?那就祝你走运。)

  4)should表义务,可用于各种句式,通常指将来。如:

  You should do what your parents tell you.

  你应该照你父母的话办。

  用于第一人称疑问句,表征询意见。如:

  Should I open the window?

  我可以开窗户吗?

  亦可指现在。如:

  You shouldnt feel so unhappy over such trifles.

  对这种小事,你不应该感到这么不高兴。

  指现在亦可用进行式。如:

  You shouldnt be sitting in the sun.

  你不应该坐在阳光下。

  should用于完成式时,用于肯定句,表应完成但未完成的动作。如:

  He looks very ill. He should have stayed at home.

  他看样子病很严重,本应该待在家里。

  用于否定句,则表不应完成但已完成的动作。如:

  They shouldnt have concealed it from us.

  他们本不应该对我们隐瞒那件事。

  5)should表推测,暗含很大的可能。如:

  The film should be very good as it is starring first-class actors.

  这部影片是一流演员主演的,可能拍得很好。

  有时有“有根据或把握”的含义。如:

  I should know her among a thousand.

  她在千百人中,我也会认识她。

  6)should可在某些从句中,表虚拟语气。如:

  I suggest that you should stay here as if nothing had happened.

  我你应该待在这儿,好像什么事也没有发生。

  7)should表感彩,常用在以why, how开头的疑问句中,如:

  Why shouldnt you invite him?

  为什么你竟不邀请他?

  How should I know?

  我怎么知道?

  注意下面一例中should用于一种特殊结构:

  As I was crossing the street, whom should I meet but Aunt Ann.

  我过街时见到的竟是安姑母。(用于特殊结构)

  有时可用于完成式。如:

  I went into business with her as her partner. Why shouldnt I have done it?

  我同她合伙做生意。为什么我不应这样干?

  在that引导的从句中,should亦可表感彩。如:

  Im sorry that you should think so badly of me.

  你竟把我想得这样坏,我感到遗憾。

  should还用于一些特殊结构,表感彩。如:

  That it should come to this!

  事情竟到了这种地步!

  8)must, should与ought to的比较:三者均表义务,但must最强烈。如:

  You must do it at once.

  你必须立即做这件事。

  而should和ought to则是“应当”的意思。如:

  You should do it at once.

  You ought to do it at once.

  should与ought to含义相似,常可互换。但ought to常指特殊情况,而should则常指一般情况。如:

  You ought to help him; he is in trouble.

  你应该帮助他,他有麻烦。

  You should use the transitive verb in the sentence.

  在这个句子中你应该用及物动词。

  must, ought to与should均可表推测,暗含很大的可能,但must用得较多,语气也较顺。

  9)should, ought to与was/were to用于完成式的比较:should+ 完成式与ought to+ 完成式表所期望的动作未完成,was/were to+ 完成式则表所计划的动作未完成。如:

  You should have helped him.

  你本该帮助他的。

  You ought to have warned him.

  你本该预先提醒他的。

  He was to have arrived last week.

  他本该上周到的。

  will(would)的形式和用法

  will(would)有下列几种形式。

   肯定式 缩略 肯定式 否定式 缩略 否定式

  现在式 will ll will not wont ll not

  过去式 would d would not wouldnt

  d not

  will是现在式,用于指现在。如:

  She will not shove the heavy load on to others.

  她不愿把重担推给别人。

  would是will的过去式,用于指过去。如:

  They asked us if we would have a look-round first.

  他们问我们想不想先去四下转转。

  但亦可指现在,语气比较缓和、委婉。如:

  Would you please pass me the salt?

  请递给我盐好吗?

  will的基本用法是:

  1)will(would)表意愿,主要用于第一人称;will指将来,would通常用于间接引语,指过去的将来。如:

  I wont argue with you.

  我不愿意跟你。

  I said I would do anything for him.

  我说过我愿意为他做任何事。

  2)will(would)表,用于否定句。如:

  The doctor knows I wont be operated on.

  大夫知道我不想做手术。

  He was wet through, but he wouldnt change.

  他湿透了,但不想换衣服。

  如主语为物,则意为“不起作用”。如:

  The drawer wont shut.

  抽屉关不上了。

  My fountain pen wouldnt write.

  我的自来水笔不能写字了。

  3)will(would)表习惯或反复发生的动作。如:

  John will ll asleep in church.

  约翰做礼拜时老睡觉。

  Most often we would find him lying on a couch, reading.

  我们经常看到他躺在一张长沙发上看书。

  有时重读will就有的含义。如:

  You will keep forgetting things.

  你总是不断地忘事儿。

  will可表客观事实。如:

  Gold wont dissolve in hydrochloric acid.

  金在盐酸中不溶解。

  4)will(would)表请求,指将来,用于疑问句。如:

  Will you dine with me tomorrow, Lewis?

  刘易斯,明天你同我一道吃饭好吗?

  如用would,则语气更客气。如:

  Would you mind closing the door?

  请关上门好吗?

  5)will(would)用于if引导的条件从句,亦表意愿。如:

  No, we are not going to quarrel at all if youll only let me talk.

  不,我们根本不会吵架,只要你让我说话。

  6)will表料想,指现在或将来;用于进行式时指现在;用于完成式时则指过去。皆用于第二、第三人称。如:

  This will be the school, I believe.

  我想这大概是那所学校。

  Hurry up. They will be waiting.

  快点儿吧。他们一定在等我们哩。

  You will have heard the news, Im sure.

  我想你大概听到了这个消息。

  有时will表难免。如:

  Boys will be boys.

  孩子毕竟是孩子。

  7)would表感彩。用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  -Auntie Meg has been very brave.

   梅格姑母一直很勇敢。

  -Yes. She would be brave.

   是呀,她当然勇敢。(意料中的事)

  -I dont understand him and I dont approve of his decision

   我不明白他的意思,所以不赞同他的决定。

  -No, you wouldnt.

   是呀,你当然不赞成。(我没有指望你赞成)

  8)would用于wish后的从句中。如:

  I wish the rain would stop for a moment.

  我希望雨停一会儿。

  9)would用于固定习语。如:

  “Id rather do it myself”, said Luke.

  “我宁愿自己干,”卢克说。

  would…mind用于疑问句和否定句。如:

  Would you mind my staying here for a while?

  你在意我在这儿待一会儿吗?

  10)would与used to的比较:二者均可表习惯。如:

  When we were children we used to/would go skating every winter.

  我们小的时候每年冬天都去滑冰。

  used to与would之不同在于used to有现在已无此习惯的含义,并可表一次性动作。如:

  I used to have an old Rolls Royce.

  我曾有过一辆旧的罗尔斯罗伊斯小轿车。(此处不能用would)

  need的形式和用法

  need既可用作情态动词,亦可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,它只有一种形式,后跟不带to的动词不定式,只用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,它有动词的全部形式,即现在时单数第三人称needs,现在分词needing以及过去式和过去分词needed,后跟带to的不定式,可用于一切句式。如:

   情态动词 实义动词

  肯定式 He needed to escape.

  否定式 He neednt escape. He doesnt need to escape.

  肯定疑问式 Need we escape? Do we need to escape?

  否定疑问式 Neednt he escape

  after all? Doesnt he need to

  escape after all?

  情态动词need的基本用法是:

  1)表需要,指现在或将来,只用于否定句和疑问句。如:

  You need not meet him unless youd like to.

  除非你愿意,你不需要见他。

  Need I repeat it?

  我需要再将它重复一遍吗?

  need一般不用于肯定句,但可用于含有否定句意味的肯定句中。如:

  He need do it but once.

  他只需做一次,(but once=no more than one)

  need的过去式形式不变。如:

  He said he need not hurry.

  他说他不必匆忙。

  need可用于完成式,表不需要完成但已完成的动作,暗含时间或精力的浪费。如:

  You neednt have bought it.

  你没有必要买它。(但你却买了)

  有时亦可与进行式连用。如:

  We neednt be standing here in the rain.

  我们没有必要站在这里被雨淋。

  2)情态动词need和实义动词need偶尔也有揉合的情况。如:

  All he needs have is foresight.

  他所需要的是预见性。

  [注]在美国英语中,常用neednt代替dont have to,如You neednt tell George(你不必告诉乔治)。

  3)shouldnt, oughtnt to与neednt等加完成式的比较;shouldnt+ 完成式和oughtnt+ 完成式表已完成不该完成的动作,neednt+ 完成式表已完成不需要完成的动作。如:

  You shouldnt have come.

  你本不应该来。

  You oughtnt to have written to them.

  你本不应该给他们写信。

  You neednt have come.

  你本不需要来。

  dare的形式和用法

  同need一样,dare既可用作情态动词,亦可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,它只有一种形式,后跟不带to的不定式,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,它有动词的全部形式,即现在时单数第三人称dares, 现在分词daring以及过去式和过去分词dared, 后跟带to的不定式,可用于一切句式。如:

   情态助动词

  肯定式 He dared to escape.

  否定式 He darent escape. He doesnt dare to escape.

  肯定疑问式 Dare we escape? Do we dare to escape?

  否定疑问式 Dare he not escape? Doesnt he dare to escape?

  情态动词dare的基本用法是:

  1)表敢于,指现在或过去。如:

  I dare not go there.

  我不敢去那儿。

  指过去时形式不变。如:

  The king was so hot-tempered that no one dare tell him the bad news.

  国王脾气很大,没有人敢对他讲坏消息。

  dare可用于完成式。如:

  I darent have done it yesterday, but I think I dare now.

  我昨天不敢做此事,但我想我现在敢做了。

  2)情态动词dare和实义动词dare偶尔有揉合的情况。如:

  She dared say no more.

  她不再敢说了。

  I didnt dare come before because I was told you were very strict.

  我以前不敢来,因为我听说你非常严厉。

  3)用于固定习语。如:

  My son is not in town, but I dare say he will be before long.

  我儿子现不在城里,不过我想不久他会来的。

  4)dare say可连写。如:

  I daresay you are right.

  我想你是对的。

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